- What is multiple sclerosis?
- Who gets MS?
- How many people have multiple sclerosis?
- What are the typical symptoms of MS?
- What causes these symptoms?
- Is MS fatal?
- Does MS always cause paralysis?
- Is MS contagious?
- Can MS be cured?
- What medications and treatments are available for MS?
- Why is MS so difficult to diagnose?
- What are the different types of MS?
Multiple sclerosis is an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the central nervous system. Symptoms range from numbness and tingling to blindness and paralysis. The progress, severity, and specific symptoms of MS in any one person cannot yet be predicted, but advances in research and treatment are moving use closer to a world free of MS.
Most people living with MS are diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 50, with more than twice as many women as men being diagnosed with the disease. There are an estimated 8-10,000 children under the age of 18 who also live with MS. Studies indicate that genetic factors could make certain individuals more susceptible to the disease, but there is no evidence that MS is directly inherited. It occurs more commonly among Caucasians, especially those of northern European ancestry, but people of African, Asian, and Hispanic backgrounds are not immune.
More than 2.1 million people are affected by MS worldwide. Because the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does not require U.S. physicians to report new cases, and because symptoms can be completely invisible, the prevalence of MS in the U.S. can only be estimated. The Society continues to advocate for the establishment of a national registry that will track the number of people living with MS and has made a commitment to re-evaluate the current prevalence estimate and investigate the process by which an updated estimate can be identified.
The progress, severity, and specific symptoms of MS in any one person cannot yet be predicted. The disease varies greatly from person to person, and from time to time, in the same person. For instance, one person might experience abnormal fatigue, another might have severe vision problems, and another could develop attention and memory issues. Even severe symptoms could disappear completely and the person could regain lost functions. In the worst cases, however, people can have partial or complete paralysis.
In MS, symptoms result when inflammation and breakdown occur in myelin, the protective insulation surrounding the nerve fibers of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). The nerve fibers themselves are also damaged. Myelin is destroyed and replaced by scars of hardened "sclerotic" patches of tissue. Such lesions are called "plaques," and appear in "multiple" places within the central nervous system. This can be compared to a loss of insulating material around an electrical wire, which interferes with the transmission of signals.
No, MS is not a fatal disease, except in rare cases. People who live with MS can be expected to have a normal or near-normal life expectancy.
No. The majority of people living with MS do not become severely disabled. Two-thirds of people who have MS remain able to walk, though many will need an aid, such as a cane or crutches.
No. MS is neither contagious nor directly inherited, although studies indicate that genetic factors might make certain individuals more susceptible to the disease.
Not yet. However, advances in treating and understanding MS are being achieved daily and the progress in research to find a cure is very encouraging. In addition, many therapeutic and technological advances are helping people manage symptoms and lead more productive lives. Several FDA-approved medications are now available and have been shown to impact the underlying course of MS.
The National Multiple Sclerosis Society recommends that people living with MS begin treatment with one of the disease modifying drugs, Avonex®, Betaseron®, Copaxone®, or Rebif® as soon as you are diagnosed with a relapsing form (the most common kind) of MS. Those drugs help to lessen the frequency and severity of MS attacks, reduce the accumulation of lesions in the brain, and slow progression of disability.
Novantrone® (mitoxantrone) is approved for reducing disability and/or frequency of relapses in patients with worsening relapsing MS. This is the first therapy approved in the United States for individuals with secondary progressive MS or who are experiencing a rapid worsening of the disease. In addition, approved by the FDA for return to market, is Tysabri®, which is generally recommended for patients who have had inadequate response to, or are unable to tolerate, other approved disease-modifying MS therapies for relapsing forms of MS.
Many therapies are available to treat symptoms such as spasticity, pain, bladder problems, fatigue, and weakness. People should consult with a knowledgeable physician to develop the most comprehensive approach to managing their MS.
In early MS, elusive symptoms that come and go might indicate any number of possible disorders. Some people have symptoms that are very difficult for physicians to interpret, and these people must "wait and see." While no single laboratory test is yet available to prove or rule out MS, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a great help in reaching a definitive diagnosis.
In an effort to develop a common language when discussing, evaluating, and treating MS, the Society conducted an international survey among scientists who specialize in MS research and patient care. Analysis of the responses has resulted in the following four definitions of disease categories, which were introduced in 1996:
Characteristics: People with this type of disease experience clearly defined flare-ups (relapses) or episodes of acute worsening of neurologic function. These are followed by partial or complete recovery periods (remissions) between attacks that are free of disease progression. Frequency: Most common form of MS at time of initial diagnosis. Approximately 85% at onset.
Characteristics: People with this type of MS experience a nearly continuous worsening of their disease from the onset, with no distinct relapses or remissions. However, there are variations in rate of progression over time, occasional plateaus, and temporary minor improvements. Frequency: Relatively rare. Approximately 10% at onset.
Characteristics: People with this type of MS experience an initial period of relapsing-remitting disease (see above) followed by a steady worsening disease course with or without occasional flare-ups, minor remissions (recoveries) or plateaus. Frequency: If left untreated, 50% of people with relapsing-remitting MS develop this form of the disease within 10 years of initial diagnosis.
Characteristics: People with this type of MS experience a steady worsening disease from the onset but also have clear acute flare-ups (relapses), with or without recovery. In contrast to relapsing-remitting MS, the periods between relapses are characterized by continuing disease progression. Frequency: Relatively rare. Approximately 5% at onset.